Oltenia is a historical region of Romania in western Wallachia. It is situated between the Danube, the Southern Carpathian Mountains, and the Olt River.
Oltenia was inhabited by Dacians until the Roman Empire annexed it in 106 CE at the end of the Dacian Wars. The Romans withdrew their administration south of the Danube at the end of the 3rd century and Oltenia was ruled by the Germanic Goths. In the late 4th century Oltenia came under the rule of the Taifals before the invasion by the Huns.
From then it was part of the Bulgarian Empire for most of the time. In 1233, the Kingdom of Hungary invaded the western part of Oltenia that would persist until the 1526 Battle of Mohács.
Today, Oltenia consists of five counties: Dolj, Gorj, Mehedinți, Olt and Vâlcea.